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REPORT: Ontario’s Reopening and the Third Wave: The Spread of COVID-19 in Workplaces & Schools – Data updated to March 13

Posted: March 29, 2021

(March 29, 2021)

Click here for full version of the non-health care outbreaks report, which includes a list of archived outbreak entries. A summary of the report can be found below.


Introduction & Analysis

Our last report showed that the Ontario “Stay at Home” order was effective in limiting transmission of COVID-19 in non-essential businesses.  Our new report shows that the reopening of schools across the province and Ontario’s move back to the colour-coded restrictions[1] has been accompanied with a disturbing increase in cases in workplaces, that in many industries is growing faster than the general community increase.

This report tracks the COVID-19 cases in workplaces, schools, and childcare from February 1- March 13, 2021.  It is split into two parts – the monthly tracking chart for the month of February, and the increase and change in industries that are showing growth since the end of February.

We are now in the third wave of the pandemic. Throughout the period covered by this report, cases in the general public have risen significantly:

  • as of March 1, the daily 7-day average case count was 1,098 per day;
  • by March 13, it increased to 1,337 per day;
  • by March 29, Ontario is now averaging 2,038 cases per day (7-day average).
  • In the last 24-hours Ontario Public Health is reporting 2,448 new cases.[2]

This increase is the highest it has been since February 1, and higher than any average during the first wave of COVID-19, which peaked at 571 cases per day on April 24, 2020. The second wave peaked around January 10 with a 7-day average of 3,546. [3]

Hospitalization rates have also increased since February:

  • March 1 there were 659 Ontarians hospitalized with COVID-19;
  • on March 13 that number increased to 689;
  • by March 29 the number hospitalized has significantly increased to 985, a high we have not seen since February 6 as cases were being resolved from the second wave.[4]

Workplace outbreaks have continued to outpace cases in the general population:

  • In the month of February, the cumulative number of COVID-19 cases in workplace outbreaks increased 24.4% compared to 12.1% in the community;
  • In the first two weeks of March, the cumulative number of COVID-19 cases in workplace outbreaks increased 9.6% compared to 6% in the community.

The workplaces impacted by the spread of the virus have also changed with the reopening. In February we saw the rapid spread of COVID-19 among congregate settings (shelters, corrections and short-term accommodations). In the first two weeks of March we are seeing the rapid spread in congregate settings is starting to slow down while the retail and services are beginning to rise and, predictably, the education sector has seen the highest rate of increase. In the most recent data available, shelter outbreaks in Toronto and Hamilton have seen a rise in COVID-positive case numbers that are alarming. Childcare has remained high throughout.

For the month of February (from January 30 to February 27) the industries which saw the highest growth in COVID-19 cases associated with a workplace outbreak, calculated from Public Health Ontario data, were:

  • Recreation- excluding fitness (64%)
  • Shelters (60%)
  • Corrections (56%)
  • Short Term Accommodations (51%)
  • Childcare (37%)

The cumulative total of COVID-19 cases in the general population grew 12.1% during February.

For the first two weeks of March (from February 27 to March 13) the industries which saw the highest growth in COVID-19 cases associated with a workplace outbreak, calculated from Public Health Ontario data, were:

  • Post-Secondary (245%)
  • Personal Services (33%)
  • Elementary Schools (19.7%)
  • Short-Term Accommodations (15.4%)
  • Secondary Schools (13.7%)
  • Recreation- excluding Fitness (11%)
  • Recreation- Fitness (10.9%)
  • Childcare (10.6%)

The cumulative total of COVID-19 cases in the general population grew 6% from February 27 to March 13.

It is important to note that while we are tracking the growth rate of cases in different workplaces, these percentages can sometimes be misleading due to the relatively small or large number of cases reported in those industries. For example, case growth in short-term accommodations and post-secondary education have skyrocketed during the period reported but while this trend is troubling the actual number of cases is not huge. Cases in short term accommodations grew from 43 cases on January 30 to 75 on March 13, an increase of 32 cases. In post-secondary schools the 245% increase from February 27 to March 13 is alarming, particularly if the rate of growth continues, but it actually constitutes 170 new cases in the two-week period.  If we compare these increases to cases in farms which have not shown a high rate of increase (increasing 7.8% in February and 1.7% in the first two weeks of March) these increases actually constitute 220 new cases of COVID-19 and the rate of increase is only smaller due to the horrendously large outbreaks on farms in 2020. The actual numbers of cases in industries showing significant spread of the virus are included in the sections by industry below.

The test positivity rate has also increased. As of March 13, the province reported an overall test positivity rate of 3.1%. The regions with the highest positivity are in Thunder Bay (6.7%), Peel (5.8%), Toronto (5.0%), York (4.3%) and Hamilton (3.7%).[5]  As of February 27, the province reported an overall test positivity rate of 2.5%, a decrease from 4% at January 30. The regions with the highest positivity are in Peel (5.7%), Thunder Bay (4.9%), Toronto (4.0%), Brant (3.6%) and York (3.3%).[6]

Correctional Facilities

COVID-19 cases in correctional facilities grew 116% between December 5 and January 2 (compared to the general population increase of 50.43%) and 152% between January 2 and January 30 (compared to the 75% increase in the general public). [7] [8]  They continued to grow 56% from January 30- February 27 compared to the 12% increase in the general public.[9] [10]   The outbreaks at Thunder Bay Correction Facility and the Thunder Bay Jail were declared on January 6 and these outbreaks have finally been declared resolved as of February 20, after infecting 79 people and leading to the City of Thunder Bay declaring a state of emergency. The outbreak at Thunder Bay Jail is still ongoing and has resulted in 124 cases among staff and inmates.[11]  As of February 23 most of these cases had been resolved.[12] Corrections outbreaks have spread throughout the province as follows: 9 cases in the Stratford prison which then closed[13], Hamilton with 7 cases at Barton Street Jail on February 17 [14] which has now grew to 27 cases on February 22 [15], and Lindsay Super Jail which has reported 4 cases in their facilities.[16] There has also been a devastating outbreak in Milton at the Maplehurst Correctional Facility which reported 186 cases among staff and inmates by February 16.[17]  By mid- March there were still many active outbreaks in correctional facilities. However the spread of the virus seems to have slowed down and cases are being resolved.

Shelters

In the month of February, homeless shelters saw a huge uptick in cases to levels that we have not seen since the first wave, increasing 60% when compared to the 12% increase in the general population. In Toronto and Hamilton, case numbers have continued to rise significantly in March. In February, shelter outbreaks have been declared in cities that saw significant outbreaks during the first wave — Toronto, Ottawa, and York — but have also spread to most other medium sized cities in Ontario.  Outbreaks in York and Ottawa have had many more cases than they experienced during the first wave of COVID-19.  An outbreak at the Salvation Army in Hamilton grew from 21 cases to 25 cases in February and is now up to 63 cases (as of March 29) and a second outbreak was declared at Salvation Army Hamilton Booth Centre. Shelters in Windsor-Essex and Kitchener both have had significant outbreaks with 65 cases in Windsor-Essex[18] and 9 cases in Kitchener[19] by the end of February. Ottawa had three large outbreaks ranging from 54 to 108 cases[20] which were resolved, and there is one new outbreak at an Ottawa shelter with 2 active cases in staff. York also reported 4 outbreaks in their shelters [21] [22] which have since been resolved. Toronto had 9 outbreaks with 137 cases, and tragically, another death was reported[23] in February. As of March 29, Toronto reports 14 active shelter outbreaks with a combined total of 343 cases.  Of these, in the outbreak at the Maxwell Meighen Centre which had 29 cases in February, some of those infected have screened positive for the COVID-19 variant.[24]  By March, spread of COVID-19 in shelters continues to increase alarmingly in Toronto and Hamilton, though it seems to be slowing down elsewhere. (Please note: outside of Toronto, Hamilton, York and Ottawa reporting relies on media and Public Health Units are not reporting shelter outbreaks.) However, there are still active outbreaks and if there is a reduction in tracked cases, this may be caused by homeless people leaving the shelters to camp outside as the weather warms up.

Education and Childcare

Schools in the Northern Ontario Public Health Units reopened as of January 10, other non-“hotspot” schools opened as of February 1, and Toronto, Peel, and York opened on February 16.[25]

In the month of February, cases associated with school outbreaks, under the narrow definition tailored for schools (must have lab-confirmed epi-link) rose 9.3% (averaged across the different school types) compared to the 12% increase in the community.  Cases associated with outbreaks in childcare settings increased more significantly, rising 37% from January 30-February 27.  The definition of school outbreak has been controversial throughout the pandemic as numerous cases in the same school are often not counted as an outbreak unless there is a laboratory confirmed epi-link, which relies on accurate contact tracing.  Looking at the total number of cases in schools, regardless of whether or not the provincial government has counted them as outbreaks under their definition of outbreak, cases in schools and childcare settings both increased at a higher rate than the general public in February. Cases among students and education staff (elementary and secondary schools) increased 17% in February and cases in childcare settings increased 22% compared to the 12% increases in the general public. This growth represents a significant number of new cases: 1,247 new cases in total over the month of February.

Also in February, school closures have been required due to the spread of COVID-19 within a very short period of reopening. At the end of February, the Thunder Bay School Board returned to online learning as they had 576 students and 55 staff self-isolating, leaving them with not enough staff to maintaining in-class learning. [26]  In February two schools in Sudbury detected 5 cases of variants of concern in their schools.[27] Five schools in Sudbury were closed at the beginning of March. Brant County reported four outbreaks among schools ranging from 2-7 cases, among these, St. Peters school closed after having 7 confirmed cases.[28]  Across Ontario in February, we began to see an increase in the spread of COVID-19 in schools, for example: Hamilton also reported five outbreaks with 2-9 cases each;[29] there were two outbreaks in Durham with 4 cases and 2 cases respectively;[30]  Despite only being open for a little over a week, there were eight schools in Toronto that had confirmed at least one case of variants of concern in their students and staff.[31]

In the first two weeks of March, post-secondary institutions saw the most significant percentage rise in COVID-19 cases, increasing 245%.  University of Waterloo, Queen’s University, and Fleming College have had large outbreaks in their residences and student living that have spread to their campuses and communities.  The most devastating of these is the UK variant outbreak at Fleming College’s residence, Severn Court, that resulted in 59 cases and the tragic death of one student.

In the first two weeks of March, we have also seen a much steeper rise in positive cases associated with a provincially-defined outbreak in elementary and secondary schools, outpacing the growth in the general population and increasing 19.7% in elementary schools and 13.7% in secondary schools.  Cases in elementary and secondary school students and staff (including those not counted by the province as an outbreak) have grown significantly as well, increasing 17% compared to the increase of 6% in the general public.  Schools have been closed in Sudbury and Thunder Bay and are now being closed in Lambton County and Niagara. In addition, Oakville has had to close 10 schools and the Dufferin-Peel Catholic School Board reported that the number teachers required to isolate forced them to switch to remote learning.[32]

Throughout February and into the second week of March, the spread of the virus in childcare settings has risen steeply: there were 837 cases reported on January 30 and 1,267 cases on March 13.

Public Reporting and Transparency

Reporting of workplace outbreaks is still inadequate with the exception of a very few Public Health Units. This is not in the public interest. Names of facilities and case numbers in long-term care, hospitals, retirement homes, schools, corrections and childcare centres are openly reported. But very few workplace outbreaks outside of these sectors are being reported openly to the public. In some cases, even the workers are given partial or no information about outbreaks in their own workplaces.  Ten Public Health Units now report the industry and number of cases associated with workplace outbreaks though not the workplace name, while Toronto is now reporting some workplace outbreaks if deemed a risk to public safety.  Hamilton and Brant are reporting all workplace outbreaks by name of business and positive case numbers. Across Ontario, the vast majority of workplace outbreaks are still not reported with the name of the business. Transparent and comprehensive reporting on outbreaks are necessary to not only inform the public and workers about risks of exposure, but also to pressure companies to implement safe working conditions. Public Health Units must communicate clearly about outbreak protocols to keep workers safe.

 

Chart 1. Public Health Ontario’s Reported COVID-19 Outbreaks in Non-Health Care Industries
(This chart shows the number of cumulative cases that have been traced back to an outbreak at a workplace in Ontario as reported by Public Health Ontario, broken down by workplace type) [33][34]

Bold entries are industries that have seen higher increases than cases in the general population.

Dec 5 Jan 2 % increase Jan 30 % increase Feb 27 % increase
Congregate Care Settings
Corrections 128 276 115.6% 693 151.9% 1,078 55.6%
Shelter 650 688 5.8% 1,004 45.9% 1,606 60%
Group Home 1,082 1,465 35.4% 2,036 39% 2,476 21.6%
Short-term Accommodations 14 14 0.0% 43 207.1% 65 51.2%
Other 247 396 60.3% 655 65.4% 784 19.7%
Education
Child Care 359 509 41.8% 837 64.4% 1,146 36.9%
Elementary School 854 1,357 58.9% 1,852 36.5% 2,051 10.7%
Elementary-Secondary 88 176 100% 194 10.2% 214 10.3%
Secondary 269 461 71.4% 618 34.1% 662 7.1%
Post-Secondary 19 39 105% 65 66.7% 71 9.2%
Workplaces
Bar/Restaurant Nightclub 376 493 31.1% 584 18.5% 660 13%
Personal Services 32 36 12.5% 42 16.7% 45 7.1%
Recreational Fitness 338 428 26.6% 451 5.3% 457 1.3%
Recreation-other 435 590 35.6% 821 39.2% 1,350 64.4%
Retail 228 543 138.2% 879 61.9% 1,047 19.1%
Farm 1,489 1,803 21.1% 2,294 27.2% 2,472 7.8%
Food Processing 764 1,261 65.1% 1,809 43.5% 2,085 15.3%
Other 2,468 4,013 62.6% 6,114 52.4% 7,854 28.5%
Workplace Outbreak Total 9,840 14,548 47.8% 20,991 44.3% 26,123 24.4%
General Population 128,759 193,692 50.4% 268,933 75.1% 301,474 12.1%

 

Chart 2: Cases in Education and Childcare in Ontario
(This chart shows the cumulative number of cases in childcare and education settings as reported by the province of Ontario.  These cases are much higher than the cases reported by Public Health Ontario because not all of these cases are associated with a declared outbreak.) [35]
Dec 4 Dec 18 % Increase Jan 30 % increase Feb 26 % increase
Education 5,402 7,292 34.98% 7,316 3.33% 8,563 17.04%
Childcare 893 1,219 36.51% 2,191 79.73% 2,675 22.09%
General Population 125,385 153,614 22.51% 268,933 75.07% 301,474 12.1%

 

Chart 1. Public Health Ontario’s Reported COVID-19 Outbreaks in Non-Health Care Industries
(This chart shows the number of cumulative cases that have been traced back to an outbreak at a workplace in Ontario as reported by Public Health Ontario, broken down by workplace type) [36][37]

Bold entries are industries that have seen higher increases than cases in the general population.

Jan 2 % increase Jan 30 % increase Feb 27 % increase Mar 13 % increase
Congregate Care Settings
Corrections 276 115.6% 693 151.9% 1,078 55.6% 1,157 7.3%
Shelter 688 5.8% 1,004 45.9% 1,606 60% 1,771 10.3%
Group Home 1,465 35.4% 2,036 39% 2,476 21.6% 2,632 6.3%
Short-term Accommodation 14 0.0% 43 207.1% 65 51.2% 75 15.4%
Other 396 60.3% 655 65.4% 784 19.7% 841 7.3%
Education
Child Care 509 41.8% 837 64.4% 1,146 36.9% 1,267 10.6%
Elementary School 1,357 58.9% 1,852 36.5% 2,051 10.7% 2,455 19.7%
Elementary-Secondary 176 100% 194 10.2% 214 10.3% 218 1.9%
Secondary 461 71.4% 618 34.1% 662 7.1% 753 13.7%
Post-Secondary 39 105% 65 66.7% 71 9.2% 245 245%
Workplaces
Bar/Restaurant Nightclub 493 31.1% 584 18.5% 660 13% 722 9.4%
Personal Services 36 12.5% 42 16.7% 45 7.1% 60 33%
Recreational Fitness 428 26.6% 451 5.3% 457 1.3% 507 10.9%
Recreation-other 590 35.6% 821 39.2% 1,350 64.4% 1,498 11%
Retail 543 138.2% 879 61.9% 1,047 19.1% 1,122 7%
Farm 1,803 21.1% 2,294 27.2% 2,472 7.8% 2,514 1.7%
Food Processing 1,261 65.1% 1,809 43.5% 2,085 15.3% 2,155 3.4%
Other 4,013 62.6% 6,114 52.4% 7,854 28.5% 8,631 9.9%
Workplace Outbreak Total 14,548 47.8% 20,991 44.3% 26,123 24.4% 28,623 9.6%
General Population 193,692 50.4% 268,933 75.1% 301,474 12.1% 318,953 6%

 

Chart 2: COVID-19 In Education and Childcare
(This chart shows the cumulative number of cases in childcare and education settings as reported by the province of Ontario.  These cases are much higher than the cases reported by Public Health Ontario because not all of these cases are associated with a declared outbreak.) [38]
Dec 18 % Increase Jan 30 % increase Feb 26 % increase Mar 15 %

Increase

Education 7,292 35% 7,316 3% 8,563 17% 10,052 17%
Childcare 1,219 37% 2,191 80% 2,675 22% 3,000 12%
General Population 153,614 23% 268,933 75% 301,474 12% 318,953 6%

 

[1] Davidson, Sean. CTV News. Ontario moves 27 regions from stay-at- home order to reopening framework on Feb. 16. February 12, 2021. https://toronto.ctvnews.ca/ontario-moves-27-regions-from-stay-at-home-order-to-reopening-framework-on-feb-16-1.5306272

[2] Government of Ontario COVID-19 tracking website: https://covid-19.ontario.ca/data

[3] Ibid.

[4] Ibid.

[5] IC/ES. ICES COVID-19 Dashboard. February 27, 2021. https://www.ices.on.ca/DAS/AHRQ/COVID-19-Dashboard

[6] IC/ES. ICES COVID-19 Dashboard. March 15, 2021. https://www.ices.on.ca/DAS/AHRQ/COVID-19-Dashboard

[7] Epidemiological Summary. Public Health Ontario.  January 2 2021. https://www.publichealthontario.ca/-/media/documents/ncov/epi/covid-19-weekly-epi-summary-report.pdf?la=en

[8] Epidemiological Summary. Public Health Ontario.  January 30 2021. https://www.publichealthontario.ca/-/media/documents/ncov/epi/covid-19-weekly-epi-summary-report.pdf?la=en

[9] Epidemiological Summary. Public Health Ontario.  January 30 2021. https://www.publichealthontario.ca/-/media/documents/ncov/epi/covid-19-weekly-epi-summary-report.pdf?la=en

[10] Epidemiological Summary. Public Health Ontario.  February 27 2021. https://www.publichealthontario.ca/-/media/documents/ncov/epi/covid-19-weekly-epi-summary-report.pdf?la=en

[11] https://www.tbnewswatch.com/local-news/covid-outbreak-at-correctional-centre-declared-over-3444328

[12] https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/thunder-bay/thunder-bay-jail-covid-1.5906034

[13] Miller, Scott. Stratford Jail temporarily closing due to COVID-19 outbreak. CTV News. February 22, 2021.  https://london.ctvnews.ca/stratford-jail-temporarily-closing-due-to-covid-19-outbreak-1.5319445

[14] Lawson, Andrea. COVID-19 outbreak declared at the Barton Street jail in Hamilton. CHCH. February 17, 2021. https://www.chch.com/covid-19-outbreak-declared-at-the-barton-street-jail-in-hamilton/

[15] Mann, Ken. 55 new cases, 21 COVID-19 outbreaks in Hamilton as of Monday. Global News.  February 22, 2021. https://globalnews.ca/news/7655251/coronavirus-covid-19-hamilton-cases-outbreaks-update-monday-february-22/

[16] Davis, Greg. COVID-19 outbreaks declared at Lindsay jail and long-term care homes in Port Hope, Minden. Global News. February 1, 2021. https://globalnews.ca/news/7611914/covid-19-lindsay-jail-ltc-homes-port-hope-minden/

[17] Gamble, Susan. Prisoners ‘very frightened’ by COVID-19 outbreak at Maplehurst. The Expositor. February 19, 2021. https://www.brantfordexpositor.ca/news/prisoners-very-frightened-by-covid-19-outbreak-at-maplehurst

[18] CBC News. Outbreak declared at second shelter in Winsor-Essex. February 17, 2021. https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/windsor/windsor-essex-covid19-feb17-1.5916927

[19] Sebastian-Scott, James. The Bridges Shelter in Cambridge dealing with a COVID-19 outbreak. Kitchener Today. February 12, 2021. https://www.kitchenertoday.com/coronavirus-covid-19-local-news/the-bridges-shelter-in-cambridge-dealing-with-a-covid-19-outbreak-3422878

[20] Daily COVID-19 Dashboard. Ottawa Public Health. February 27, 2021.  https://www.ottawapublichealth.ca/en/reports-research-and-statistics/daily-covid19-dashboard.aspx

[21] COVID-19 in York Region. The Regional Municipality of York. February 20, 2021. https://www.york.ca/wps/portal/yorkhome/health/yr/covid-19/covid19inyorkregion/01covid19inyorkregion/!ut/p/z1/tZJLT-MwFIV_C4suI187SW0vTeg0CTQtjz7iTZVJ09RMk5SMKTC_fhxUJISgMGLshV-6Plfn80ESLZCss70qM62aOtuacyr7y0gMozA8h3jssQAEjEVMKIMBx2j-XAAfDAFIfuX9kQJ5XH6GJJK7XK1QStyCspwzh4KfO16W9x2Of67MxNc-5-uMd3JI5rXe6Q1Kn9pl3tS6qHUPnpr2lzn81krfP19smqowc5Ft9aYHebNXKwfzww5zVXcv2qI0mHoA-J1rFH_m3cAl7SgYlcZBpjeOqtcNWrz0OuzeiC7e72Wk1O3dnRTGXufpUaOFbX_zDuZrh8Nr5kE0i6mY4TF4kXsoIMTrhziAGMIxg-gHnfhnLMRwTg4FR_43NfmgH0K8Imi-V8UDmtZNW5m8Xv9jHMKXDpQFIhRDmMDNlMLlgHqsfzGaXFzhb3b4xIBledeqPAW78sSu_P-BE0cQYNHF3x24IEgUsFM3Zklil31il31il31iN_ez78LZVdNpxVx_WzLNo1u_rJZnp4mTxvs_R5eRODn5Cx0G6fA!/dz/d5/L2dBISEvZ0FBIS9nQSEh/#.YDlN_5NKh24

[22] Moro, Teviah. Hamilton Salvation Army deals with major COVID-19 outbreak. The Hamilton Spectator. February 19, 2021. https://www.thespec.com/news/hamilton-region/2021/02/19/hamilton-salvation-army-deals-with-major-covid-19-outbreak.html

[23] COVID-19: Status of Cases in Toronto. City of Toronto. February 27, 2021. https://www.toronto.ca/home/covid-19/covid-19-latest-city-of-toronto-news/covid-19-status-of-cases-in-toronto/

[24] COVID-19 variant outbreak at Toronto shelter. Inside Halton. February 23, 2021. https://www.insidehalton.com/news-story/10336963-covid-19-variant-outbreak-at-toronto-shelter/

[25] Fox, Chris & Wilson, Codi. Schools in Toronto, Peel and York can reopen Feb. 16, all other schools set to reopen Monday. CP24. February 3, 2021. https://www.cp24.com/news/schools-in-toronto-peel-and-york-can-reopen-feb-16-all-other-schools-set-to-reopen-monday-1.5293504

[26] Dunick, Leith. TBNewsWatch. Schools going virtual in Thunder Bay. February 25 2021.

https://www.tbnewswatch.com/local-news/schools-going-virtual-for-at-least-two-weeks-3458179

[27] Paglinawan, Dan. School board in Thunder Bay wants classes moved online after COVID outbreaks. 680 News. February 24, 2021. https://www.680news.com/2021/02/24/thunder-bay-school-covid19-outbreak-lakehead-district-ontario/

[28] Ball, Vincent. COVID cases in schools traced to Family Day gatherings. The Expositor.  February 24, 2021.  https://www.brantfordexpositor.ca/news/closing-st-peters-due-to-covid-necessary-petrella

[29] Hristova, Bobby. COVID-19 outbreak declared at St. Eugene Catholic Elementary School in Hamilton. CBC News. February 24, 2021. https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/hamilton/school-outbreak-hamilton-1.5925684

[30] Two public schools in Durham experiencing COVID-19 outbreaks. Durham Radio News. February 22, 2021. https://www.durhamradionews.com/archives/133648

[31] Feinstein, Claire. Eight Toronto schools have detected COVID-19 variants of concern. Daily Hive News. February 25, 2021. https://dailyhive.com/toronto/toronto-public-health-schools-covid-19-variants-concern

[32] Sarrouh, Maria. The Star. Dufferin-Peel board closes 10 schools because of COVID-19. March 18 2021. https://www.thestar.com/news/gta/2021/03/18/dufferin-peel-board-closes-10-schools-because-of-covid.html

[33] Epidemiological Summary. Public Health Ontario.  January 30 2021. https://www.publichealthontario.ca/-/media/documents/ncov/epi/covid-19-weekly-epi-summary-report.pdf?la=en

[34] Epidemiological Summary. Public Health Ontario.  February 27 2021. https://www.publichealthontario.ca/-/media/documents/ncov/epi/covid-19-weekly-epi-summary-report.pdf?la=en

[35] Government of Ontario. Cases in Childcare and Education. February 27 2021. https://www.ontario.ca/page/covid-19-cases-schools-and-child-care-centres

[36] Epidemiological Summary. Public Health Ontario.  January 30 2021. https://www.publichealthontario.ca/-/media/documents/ncov/epi/covid-19-weekly-epi-summary-report.pdf?la=en

[37] Epidemiological Summary. Public Health Ontario.  February 27 2021. https://www.publichealthontario.ca/-/media/documents/ncov/epi/covid-19-weekly-epi-summary-report.pdf?la=en

[38] Government of Ontario. Cases in Childcare and Education. February 27 2021. https://www.ontario.ca/page/covid-19-cases-schools-and-child-care-centres